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Category:Arabic-language books Category:Shia fiqhLong-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are fundamental properties of neural networks. In the hippocampus, the most extensively studied form of LTP/LTD, the induction and maintenance of LTP/LTD rely on a classical NMDA receptor-dependent process that modulates the strength of synaptic connections (Deng et al., (1999) J. Neurosci. 19(15):4794-800). NMDA receptors (NMDARs) exist as heteromeric assemblies consisting of GluN1 (NR1) subunits and one of the four GluN2 (NR2) subunits (A-D), and multiple GluN2 subunits can co-assemble with GluN1 (Becker and Huganir, (2002) Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 42: 393-426). NMDARs are thus integral to the induction of long-lasting changes in synaptic strength by LTP and LTD. Pharmacological blockade of NMDARs has been shown to impair the induction and maintenance of LTP and LTD in the hippocampus (Gewirtz, et al., (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91(21):10880-10885; Belluzzi, et al., (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(9):2476-2485; Dingledine, et al., (2004) J. Neurophysiol. 91(1):1-12). In addition, mice lacking GluN1, GluN2A, or GluN2B subunits exhibit alterations in LTP and LTD (Sawa, et al., (1997) Neuron 19(1):175-185; Niswender and Conn (2002) Nature Neuroscience 5(5):467-468; Sontheimer, et al., (2001) Neuron 29(2):367-377; Campion, et al., (2004) Neuron 42(5):861-874; Sun, et al., (2002) Neuron 34(1):99-111; Murakoshi, et al., (2002) Nat. Neurosci. 5(12):1223-1226; Ikenberry, et al., (2000) Neuron 28(5):963-972; Nisw





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